Bucerius Fellow Adam Baczko and his co-authors about the civil war in Syria:
“In the end, polarization and political fragmentation, rather than a product of the Syrian society, reflect the influence of external actors. International and transnational dynamics affected the insurgency’s decentralization even more because of its disorganization. (…) In Syria, as in other contexts of increased political and military competition (Afghanistan, Iraq, Angola, or the Democratic Republic of Congo), the ability to centralize, to accumulate, and to use the resources strategically is crucial to survival.”
Baczko, A., Dorronsoro, G., & Quesnay, A. (2018). Civil War in Syria. In Civil War in Syria: Mobilization and Competing Social Orders (Problems of International Politics, p. I). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.39.
>> English edition
>> French edition